Ceftriaxone is an antibiotic of the cephalosporin class of drugs. It is given by an injection in the muscle or the vein.
- Bloodstream infections
- Septic arthritis
- Prosthetic joint infection
- Uncomplicated gonorrhea
- Ear infections
- Pelvic Inflammatory Disease (PID)
- Surgical prophylaxis
- Lyme disease
DOSAGE FOR CEFTRIAXONE
Dosage forms available:
- Injectable solution: 1 g/50 ml, 2 g/50 ml
- Powder for injection: 250 mg, 500 mg, 1 g, 2 g, 10 g (adult only), 100 g (adult only)
- Bacterial otitis infection: 50 mg/kg IM once.
- PID: 250 mg intramuscularly (IM) as single dose with doxycycline, with or without metronidazole for 14 days
- Sepsis: 2 g intravenously (IV) once daily; with clindamycin for toxic shock
Missed dose: Take the missed dose as soon as you remember. Skip the missed dose if it is almost time for your next scheduled dose. Do not take extra medicine to make up the missed dose.
Overdose: Dialysis & maintenance therapy.
- Injection site reactions
- Hard lump or soreness
- Increased RBC count
- Increased blood platelets (thrombocytosis)
- Elevated liver transaminases
- Low white blood cell count (leukopenia)
- Increased blood urea nitrogen
ADVERSE EFFECTS ARISING FROM CEFTRIAXONE
- Blood in urine
- Glucose in urine
- Extreme abdominal & gallbladder pain
- Increased serum bilirubin levels
- Increased serum creatinine levels
- Urinary casts.
PRECAUTIONS & CONTRAINDICATIONS
Ceftriaxone is contraindicated & precaution is advised in patients with following conditions:
- Patients with history of allergy to penicillin or cephalosporin drugs.
- Seizure disorders
- Immune related hemolytic diseases
- Nutritional deficiency
- Gallbladder obstruction
- History of GI diseases like colitis
- Hepatic dysfunction
- Renal dysfunction
- In neonates
INTERACTIONS OF CEFTRIAXONE
- Ceftriaxone may enhance the nephrotoxic effect of aminoglocoside drugs, in combination.
- The drug binds with IV Calcium salts forming insoluble precipitates. In neonates, the precipitates can get accumulated in the lungs & kidneys.
- To reduce pain with intramuscular injections, ceftriaxone may be reconstituted with lidocaine.
- Ceftriaxone may diminish the therapeutic effect of Cholera Vaccine.
- Probenecid may increase the serum concentration of Ceftriaxone.
- Ceftriaxone can enhance the anticoagulant effect of Vitamin K.
- In presence of furosemide can cause kidney problems.
IN PREGNANCY, BREAST FEEDING & CHILDREN
- Pregnancy: Ceftriaxone is a pregnancy category B drug and is safe to use in pregnant women.
- Breast Feeding: The drug enters in low concentration in breast milk, but is safe.
- Children: Safe to use in children. But severely contraindicated in neonates.