IDP: Symptoms, Causes & complications!

Idiopathic Thrombocytic Purpura or Immune thrombocytopenia purpura also known as IDP, is a condition in which there is a low platelet count, but a normal bone marrow condition.

IDP is a type of thrombocytic purpura in which the cause of the condition is not particularly known.

Purpura is a condition in which there are red or purple colored spots on the skin due to bleeding underneath the skin caused due to platelet disorders, vascular disorders, coagulation disorders, etc.


  • Purpura
  • Petechiae
  • Bruising in the extremities
  • Formation of red or purple spots on the skin
  • Bleeding from the nose
  • Bleeding from the gums
  • When platelet count is below 10000 per μl;
  • Blood in the urine & stool
  • Excessive menstrual bleeding
  • Formation of blood masses in the mouth
  • Formation of blood masses in other mucous membranes
  • Easily bleeding from minor wounds & abrasions.


  • When platelet count is below 5000 per μl;
  • Intracerebral hemorrhage
  • Bleeding inside the skull or brain
  • Bleeding within the subarachnoid space
  • Low gastrointestinal bleeding
  • Higher chance of bleeding in pregnant women
  • Easy internal bleeding in case of a blunt abdominal trauma.


  • IDP is an autoimmune disease
  • Antibodies attack the platelets
  • Macrophages, a type of WBC attack the platelets by engulfing them
  • Impaired production of the glycoprotein hormone thrombopoietin, which is the stimulant for platelet production, may be a contributing factor to the reduction in circulating platelets.


  • The condition can be triggered by infection from the following infections:
    a) HIV
    b) Hepatitis
    c) H.Pyroli
    d) Mumps
  • Higher risk factor in young women
  • Presence of existing conditions or diseases like:
  • Rheumatoid arthritis
  • Systemic Lupus
  • Evans Syndrome
  • Antiphospholipid syndrome.


  • Primary diagnosis is done by exclusion of other causes that can lead to such a condition. 
  • Detection of any other blood abnormalities & presence of physical conditions other than bleeding. 
  • Certain secondary factors/disorders/diseases are assessed for, which can contribute to formation of a condition like IDP;
    • a) Leukemia
    • b) Cirrhosis
    • c) Von Willebrand factor deficiency
    • d) Onyalai
      • e) Use of medications like quinine & heparin.
  • Bone marrow biopsy: An analysis of Bone marrow to check for an increase in the production of megakaryocytes, which can help in establishing for diagnosis of IDP.


  • Corticosteroids drugs, in urgent situations IV infusion of dexamethasone is used, whereas in less severe situations, oral prednisolone is used.
  • IV administration of Rho(D) immune globulin [Human; Anti-D].
  •  Immunosuppressants such as mycophenolate mofetil and azathioprine.
  • Use of chemotherapy agents like vincristine.
  • IV infusion of intravenous immunoglobulin (IVIg)
  • Thrombopoietin receptor agonists are drugs that stimulate platelet production in the bone marrow. Two such agents are currently used:
    a) Romiplostim administered by subcutaneous injection,
    b) Eltrombopag, an orally administered agent.
  • Dapsone, an anti infective medication is used as second line treatment of IDP.
  • Use of monoclonal antibody, rituximab.
  • Surgery: Splenectomy, surgical removal of spleen, because macrophages consume the platelets in the spleen & thus the surgical removal of spleen can reduce platelet destruction.
  • Platelet transfusion
  • Eradication of H.Pyroli.


No known prevention for IDP exists.