Myocardial Infarction: Causes & Preventive techniques!

Myocardial Infarction or a heart attacks is the decrease or blockage of supply of blood to the heart muscles, which can lead to damage to the heart muscles & cell death due to a lack of oxygen.

A Myocardial Infarction can lead to heart failure.


  • Chest Pain described as tightness, squeezing, pinching, etc.
  • Pain radiating to the left shoulder, jaw, arm, upper abdomen, back, sometimes even the right shoulder.
  • Cold sweat
  • Fatigue
  • Fainting
  • An impending feeling of doom
  • Anxiety & Panic
  • Palpitations
  • Shortness of breath
  • Lightheadedness


  • Obesity
  • High blood pressure
  • Diabetes Mellitus
  • Lack of exercise
  • Smoking
  • Alcohol consumption
  • High level of blood cholesterol
  • Medicines that can increase the blood pressure like digitalis
  • Stress
  • Illicit drugs like cocaine
  • Snake bite
  • Saturated fats in food
  • Genetic factors
  • People with low immunity & presence of other serious complications.


  • Abnormal heart rhythm or arrhythmia
  • A fast heart rate or heart beat
  • Heart block
  • Formation of clots
  • Stroke
  • Cardiogenic shock, that is inadequate blood flow
  • Pericarditis, inflammation of the fibrous sac surrounding the heart
  • Bursting of blood vessels surrounding the heart
  • Heart Failure, Cardiac Arrest & death.


  1. Physical exam: Measuring the blood pressure & pulse, above all a pale & cold body can be manifested due to vasoconstriction.
  2. ECG: An ECG is done by placing electrodes on the chest, they measure the electrical activity conducted by the heart, & also if there is any abnormality in the ST wave Q wave.
  3. Cardiac markers, that are proteins, like Troponins, are released within 4-6 hours of a heart attack & are presented at elevated levels for 2 weeks, therefore these markers can be assessed for cardiac injury.
  4. Angiography: A catheter is inserted into an artery whose blood flows directly to the heart, a radio-opaque dye is conducted through this catheter. Therefore, an X-ray is soon performed which shows the location of the affected/blocked arteries.
  5. Imaging tests like ultrasound can be conducted to rule out possibility of other conditions.


  • Medications that can be given following a heart attack or to prevent a heart attack are;
  • Statins, like Atorvastatin, these decrease the cholesterol level in the blood.
  • Aspirin, which acts as a blood thinner.
  • Drugs that are given to manage high blood pressure & related conditions, ACE inhibitors, ARBII blockers, Beta blockers, Calcium channel blockers, etc.
  • Pain associated can be treated with nitroglycerin & morphine.
  • Anticoagulants like warfarin are prescribed to reduce incidence of clot formation.
  • A pacemaker is inserted surgically to manage the abnormal heart rhythms.
  • Angioplasty
  • Heart bypass surgery
  • Fibrinolysis, injecting of anti-clotting agents to remove an existing clot in the arteries.


  • Weight loss/Management of obesity
  • Physical exercise
  • Stress management
  • Stopping smokingĀ 
  • Moderate or no consumption of alcohol
  • A diet that is low in saturated fats
  • A low cholesterol diet
  • Adopting a healthy diet;
  • Rich in Omega-3 fatty acids
  • Olive oil
  • Food that is lower in salt
  • Seeds & legumes
  • Refraining from heavy work
  • Management of risk factors like diabetes.